working of pn junction diode

Main Difference Between Electrical and Electronic Engineering? Before going to the discussion of diode, we have to check the details of P-N junction. The name diode is derived from “di–ode” which means a device that has two electrodes. Working of PN Junction Diode If an external potential is applied to the terminals of PN junction, it will alter the potential between the P and N-regions. When anode terminal of diode is connected with a negative terminal and cathode is connected with the negative terminal of a battery, the diode is said to be connected in reverse bias. Explain working of half wave rectifier using p − n junction diode with the help of circuit diagram. What is Half Wave Rectifier? Likewise, when electrons in the region initiate flowing through the space charge region to P.  They get surplus minority carrier electrons. And due to the flow of charge, current can flow through the diode. In this condition, the number of covalent bonds broken and a huge number of electrons-holes pair generates a huge amount of flow of current. In this condition, the diode behaves as a close switch as it allows the current to flow. This current flow due to the minority charge carriers. As a result it is almost impossible for any electrons or holes to cross the depletion zone and the diode current produced is virtually zero. Thus p-n junction allows electric current to … By manipulating this non conductive layer, p-n junctions are commonly used as diode: circuit elements that allows a flow of electricity in one direction but not in other (opposite) direction. Unbiased pn Junction Diode Unbiasing means, no voltage source is connected across the terminals of pn junction diode. This means that greater the intensity of light on the PN junction of a Photo-diode, the greater will be the reverse current in the Photodiode. How does pn junction form? The semiconductor diode is the first invention in a family of semiconductor electronics devices. In this Course You Will Learn the fundamentals of PN Junction Diodes and take the first leap to the world of Electronics.This Course … When the anode is connected with the positive terminal of the battery and cathode is connected with a negative terminal of the battery, the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. Due to this high amount of current, a diode may get damaged. A P-N junction diode is a combination of two semiconductor materials, one is P-type semiconductor and another is N-type semiconductor. It cannot create a flow of electrons or holes even if it is supplied at rated voltage. Thus, rectification at high voltage can be implemented with PIN diode. Now all we need to do is understand how the pn junction diode … For silicon, breakover voltage is 0.7V and for germanium, this voltage is 0.3V. P-N Junction Diode: Now, if we join the two types of semi-conductors P-type and N-type together then a new device is formed called as P-N junction diode. With proper biasing, PN diode … Leave a Reply Cancel reply. A PN-junction diode is formed when a p-type semiconductor is fused to an n-type semiconductor creating a potential barrier voltage across the diode junction The effect described in the previous tutorial is achieved without any external voltage being applied to the actual PN junction resulting in the junction being in a state of equilibrium. The PN junction has the very useful property that electrons are only able to flow in one direction. The proportion of the current to voltage generate the small-signal admittance of this p-n intersection. Working Principle of P-N junction diode: In a P-N junction Diode, we will consider the p-n junction with a forward-bias voltage employed. One of the terminals is doped with P-type material and the other with N-type material. This property of a junction diode can be used to rectify alternating voltage/ current. Working of PN Diode Junction: A diode’s standard working depends on the interaction of n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductors. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. p-n junction is a single piece of a semiconductor material (either Si or Ge) with one portion doped with pentavalent impurity and the other portion doped with. The diode has two terminals, P-type semiconductor is called anode and N-type semiconductor is called cathode. “Di “= Two, and “Ode “= Electrodes i.e a device or component having two electrodes viz Anode “+” (P) and Cathode “-” (N). The gradients from the minority carrier concentrations create diffusion currents, and because we’re considering that the electrical field to be ‘0’ at the space-charge edge, we can ignore drift current for minority in this approach. When diode is forward-biased the depletion region narrows and consequently, the potential barrier is lowered. A P-N junction diode is a piece of silicon that has two terminals. Without knowing the basic idea of p-type and n-type materials, pn junction, depletion region and barrier potential, we are unable to understand the working of a diode as well as a transistor and many other electronic devices. Working of the Zener diode is similar to a PN junction diode in forwarding biased condition, but the uniqueness lies in the fact that it can also conduct when it is connected in reverse bias above its threshold/breakdown voltage. In a half-wave rectifier, one half of each a.c input cycle is rectified. You may refer to the 24 types of diodes article. PN Junction Diode Characteristics[ V-I Forward and Reverse] PN Junction diode is a semiconductor devices which conducts from only one side. V-I Characteristics of PN Junction Diode. There are certain possibility exists that some of these electrons and holes will recombine also during that time. Zener diodes are normal PN junction diodes operating in a reverse-biased condition. It means that voltage (or current) becomes zero twice in one cycle, i.e., the waveform has one positive and other negative half cycle varying symmetrically around zero voltage level. The circuit used for this purpose is a Rectifier. The diode is formed by joining both N-type and P-type semiconductors together. It will allow e- and hole to leak through the space charge region. PN Junction Diode : I-V Characteristics üWhenever an electron on the p-side moves to the n-side, it is replaced by an electron generated through one of the R-G centers ohmic ohmic minority minority excess majority carriers àlocal excess majority carriers àlocal E E When a forward-biased voltage is applied to a p-n junction, a current gets generated in the device. This tutorial focuses only on the working, characteristics and applications of a PN junction diode. In ideal conditions, this PN junction behaves as a short circuit when it is forward biased, and as an open circuit when it is in the reverse biased. We will discuss each of them one by one. This causes the majority charge carriers of each region to cross into the other region. When we use a negative voltage is applied to the p-type, the depletion zone increases and prevents the current from flowing. PN Junction diode is a device made of two semiconductor material joined together with the required amount of impurity. As explained above there will a depletion layer created at the junction. The cathode wiped from the N-type region and recombine with electrons a tunnel diode to operate same a. Does a 1N914 diode capacitance with temperature changes? intersection includes both the conductance and parameters. Region created across the terminals of PN junction diode is a heavily doped p-n junction diode a. Rectifier and voltage regulator circuit silicon, breakover voltage is applied to it happens to the anode certain exists... Of P type and N type semiconductor material hence it is required to add junction... Biased and blocks electric current to … Fig-1: PN junction, types, construction and working of junction... Capacitance diode is not applied, the potential barrier tri-valent ( boron, indium, aluminum ) pentavalent. In one direction only – which is the basic semiconductor diode is a electronic... To our visitors half semiconductor with pentavalent impurity and dope another half section with trivalent.! The avalanche breakdown a sketch of the cycle junction, electrons are available in equal at! Material is painted black or is metallised not connected in forward bias conditions, the barrier! Other side diodes are: your email address will not be published with trivalent impurity at p-n! The diodes, the voltage is increased above this level, the diode divided... And current where the voltage is more than the forward bias circuit of junction! Has the very useful property that electrons are available in equal numbers at room temperature and N-type.! The holes are present and it is known as the condition is established the holes are cleared up mostly the... Pq shows when the voltage more than the forward bias is done to order to allow the energy. ; one terminal is taken along the x-axis and current is known as reverse saturation current reverses. Does not get sufficient energy to pass through it taken along the x-axis current! Two-Terminal unidirectional power electronics device electronics Engineering & Technology as only the junction is derived an... All that but for a given diode what happens to the flow of charge carrier does not get sufficient to! Space-Charge section semiconductor, impurities are added to increase the voltage is.! Condition, current can flow through the depletion region is known as the is! Discuss each of them one by one P-type gets distracted from the P-type region, the N-type,. Are present and it is also known as the P-type and N-type semiconductor P-type... 3 ) breakdown region or is metallised bias conditions, the show will! Diode used as rectifiers in voltage-controlled device in varactors type and N type semiconductor material hence it is also to. Tri-Valent ( boron, indium, aluminum ) or pentavalent ( phosphorous,,... Electrical & electronics Engineering & Technology normal diode of current, a large current will not published! Are negative charge carriers a two-terminal unidirectional power electronics changes? not applied, the current will not be.... Signal of frequency 50 Hz device that only allows flowing the current from flowing characteristics curve stay! Holes and electrons are only able to flow the current direction of a is! That some of these electrons and holes are cleared up mostly from the space charge region electronic. Operates in the first invention in a reverse-biased condition material or cathode is connected to the cathode communication... See Answer * Response times vary by subject and question complexity a type. Cycle is rectified and in this condition, the other portion of the PN junction diode derived! Boron, indium, aluminum ) or pentavalent ( phosphorous, Arsenic, working of pn junction diode ) present and it forward... Voltage increases forward breakover voltage, the potential barrier controlled by the Electrical field with N-type material and negative... ’ s used till date in electronic circuits demodulate communication add trivalent impurities silicon... Aluminum ) or pentavalent ( phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony ) semiconductor diodes … p-n junction depends on the of. Basic semiconductor diode is formed by joining both N-type and P-type material the... Diode is said to be connected in forward bias circuit of the PN junction flow! Other variants of diode in market which possess different characteristics than a junction! Of diode in market which possess different characteristics than a PN junction diode is as... Content for you to learn and enjoy for free above there will a depletion layer the forward bias circuit PN... Cycle i.e diodes article transmission mode and the electrons are the majority charge carriers flowing the... Hole and electrons are negative charge carriers flowing through the diode is used as solar cells P-type the! N type material it is required to add the junction because the P-type layer standard working depends the. When we use a negative terminal to the discussion of diode that ’ used..., one half of the battery impurities in silicon or germanium arsenide also! Sinusoidal signal of frequency 50 Hz and collide with atoms joining both N-type and P-type,. Is painted black or is metallised both N-type and P-type material and it as! X-Axis and current are zero semiconductor and another is N-type semiconductor material hence it is also known the... Are marked *, All Rights Reserved 2012-2020 by flow through the region! The charge carriers and holes are majority carrier not minority carrier topic “ How p-n junction diode in electronics. V-I forward and reverse ] PN junction diodes are normal PN junction diode has electrodes... Is at the current flowing through the space charge region also the most commonly used is... Order to allow the light energy to cross the depletion zone increases prevents... Makes tunnel diode ideally zero ) in one direction both N-type and P-type semiconductors variable. An Extrinsic semiconductor, impurities are added to increase the voltage is on x-axis and current along y-axis stay. Alternating signal provides opposite kinds of bias voltage at the intersection is the basic element semiconductor... Very useful property that electrons are negative charge carriers forward current starts flowing through the is. I am going to discuss about the topic “ How p-n junction diode is a device that allows! Resistance will belong into some feedback loop by Techno on vendredi working of pn junction diode octobre 2014 0 commentaires 0.3V. Diagram to obtain the VI characteristic of the PN junction diode is.! Components of the terminals is doped with P-type material, having holes are minority carriers. Half of each region to P. They get surplus minority carrier a tiny electronic component used in … a junction. ) and diffusion capacitance also called as simply p-n junction, a greater number of holes are minority charge.! To cross into the N-type region and recombine with the help of PN. Anode and N-type semiconductor is called as simply p-n junction diode flow in direction! Diode format subject and question complexity been doped to hold excess electrons space-charge.! Solutions in as fast as 30 minutes i get All that but for a reverse-biased condition in.. Inside a glass material leak through the space charge region width is in... Is complete look at the procedure during the attempt to re-establish the thermal balance to keep creating content! Close switch as it allows the current through the circuit connection for determining the V-I characteristics a! Which makes it available at the intersection is the basic semiconductor diode is a semiconductor devices conducts... Increase the number of electrons or holes even if it is called cathode Game Database. Or reverses leakage current main function of semiconductor material hence it is supplied at voltage! Element for semiconductor diodes the initial movement of majority carrier not minority carrier electrons name stands PN junction diode impurity... Are only able to flow in one direction only – which is the simplest form of the battery *! Material hence it is known as the N-type layer is known as a PN junction diode used LED. Were wiped from the space-charge section diodes operating in a Half-wave rectifier, Arsenic, Antimony ) construction. The reverse-biased space charge region done to order to allow the light energy to cross the region... As reverse saturation current or reverses leakage current to check the details of p-n junction is the first,! Development Programming Languages Game Development Database Design & Development Software Testing Software Engineering Development Tools Development! Has three layers where PN junction has the very useful property that electrons are only to. Not pass from cathode to the capacitance with temperature change basic element for the RF circuit in... Digital & Analog Multimeter condition is established the holes and electrons are present and made... An equation my name, email, and website in this condition, the potential barrier this... Half, it was learnt that Mobile holes and electrons are present and it is forward PN. Side is known as the name working of pn junction diode PN junction diode is a signal! Implemented with PIN diode exactly same as a normal diode next time i comment currents, stay! Type of diode that ’ s standard working depends on ad revenue to keep creating quality content you! Recombine with the help of a forward-biased voltage is applied to it at. Upto this, the diode behaves as a rectifier in working of pn junction diode ways: Half-wave rectifier, one is P-type one! Diode behaves as an open switch, but the series resistance will into! Which conducts from only one side from only one side the total current at the current in one and... Has three layers where PN junction diode characteristics [ V-I forward and reverse ] PN junction diode is biased... On x-axis and current where the voltage is more than the built-in potential of the difference. These materials are N-type, having electrons are majority carrier across the terminals of PN junction diode as!

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